What is SPD – An Overview Sensory Processing Disorder, How to Recognize It, and What To Do About It

What is SPD – An Overview Sensory Processing Disorder, How to Recognize It, and What To Do About It

Sensory Processing DisorderThe boy that whirls and spins.  The girl who covers her ears when the lawnmower outside begins.  Those who crash against walls, seemingly constantly bouncing off… well… everything.  Kiddos who “mouth”, scratch at tags, refuse shoes, fall over seemingly nothing, who are loose in their limbs and unsteady on their feet.  These are all examples of children living with sensory processing disorder.

Sensory Processing Disorder, otherwise known as SPD and formerly known as Sensory Integration Dysfunction, is a neurological disorder that results in difficulties in taking in our environment through our senses, then processing this information appropriately within our bodies.  Basically, the information in the world around us is misinterpreted.

While most of us remember being taught the 5 senses when growing up, the senses referred to here can be divided into 8 categories. Yes!  I said 8.  For those of you familiar with SPD, you know there to be 7 senses (yes, I did also just say 7), but recently, I’ve found a reference to an 8th sense.  Let’s take a quick look: 

1.  Visual – this refers to what we see or take in through our eyes

  • could mean: lights are too bright, even simple puzzles are impossible to figure out, inability to spot objects within a background or within a room, inability to block out movement and activity surrounding you, being uncomfortable or even agitated in busy settings (busily decorated rooms, etc)

2.  Auditory – this refers to what we hear 

  • could mean: having extreme reactions to loud noises (emergency sirens, lawn mowers, vacuum cleaners); covering ears in response to these noises or screaming, panicking or becoming agitated in response to the noises; inability to block out background conversations or noises from another room; able to hear sounds you are unable to; become agitated in noisy or busy rooms; unresponsive to someone simply calling your name (as if you don’t hear them at all)

3.  Tactile – this refers to what we can touch or feel

  • could mean: extreme dislike for clothing with tags, seams of socks, wearing shoes or certain materials; extreme reactions to nail cutting / hair cutting; dislikes or avoids hugs, tickles or touch of any kind from another; seemingly unresponsive to extreme temperatures (not reacting to items that are too hot or cold); conversely, extreme reactions to weather; seemingly unresponsive to painful stimuli (ex. not reacting when running into something that later causes bruising etc); also can refer to textures (not taste) of food (yogurt versus carrots)

4.  Olfaction – this refers to our sense of smell

  • could mean: an extreme reaction to certain smells (even subtle ones) or seemingly non-reactive to strong smells; unable to identify smells

5.  Gustatory – this refers to what we taste

  • could mean: preferring to eat only bland foods; inability to taste differences in food; “mouthing” non food objects (licking walls, chewing on clothing or towels, putting inedible objects/toys etc in the mouth excessively or when no longer age appropriate); difficulty chewing and/or swallowing

6.  Vestibuar – this refers to our sense of balance

  • could mean: swinging on the swings for hours or craving the swing; conversely refusing or fearing the movement of swinging; spins that is not part of play and without getting dizzy; liking or craving to be upside down; rocking movements; avoiding any activity where your head tips or moves from the ‘normal’ upright position (this includes bending over to grab objects)

7.  Proprioceptive – this refers to our body positioning

  • could mean: constantly crashing into things (walls, the floor, people) either by accident or with purpose; constant jumping off objects (to ‘crash’ on the floor); difficulty with motor planning (determining the steps to climb a ladder); craves hugs, especially hard hugs 

8.  Interoception – this refers to our body’s physiological or physical condition

How do you recognize SPD?

There are times that any of us might fall into one or more of these categories.  The difference between people with ‘normal’ or reasonably manageable sensory sensitivities and those suffering with a sensory processing disorder can be found in extremes.  The actions listed above, when found in an excessive or consistently extreme manner should be considered to be (though not necessarily) a sensory processing disorder.

There are tools available to you if you have questions, such as this checklist that can be found on the SPD Foundation website.  However, tools such as these should not be used to diagnose a Sensory Processing Disorder, but merely give you an idea if you’re on the right track.

What can you do next?

If you feel that you or your child has Sensory Processing Disorder, your next step is to find a qualified person to investigate the possibility of this diagnosis.  Contact your trusted healthcare provider for a referral to an Occupational Therapist.  For children, be sure to work with a Pediatric Occupational Therapist.  Your local Children’s Hospital may be an invaluable resource for this.

What does this mean for me / my child?

Sensory Processing Disorder can be debilitating.  Children grow to be adults unable to cope in a work place due to activity, lights, sounds or smells.  Children are unable to function in school, finding themselves in constant ‘trouble’ which is the result of continual outbursts because the fluorescent lights sting or a teacher wears a certain perfume.  Social events where your child is unable to participate, constantly spinning, running into people or clawing to remove him or herself from the noise…To say SPD interferes with daily life is to fall short.

But…it’s not the end.  There are a number of qualified Occupational therapists or therapy centers, such as the STAR Center in Greenwood Village, CO that provide services to help those suffering with SPD.  Techniques are used, careful planning of programs can help children come through their extremes to find levels that are normal and manageable.  It is workable.  all is not lost.  The first thing to do is also the most important, find help.

What are some resources?

SPD Foundation

SPD Canada

SPD University

SPD Bloggers Network

Know of a SPD Resource you feel is invaluable?  Please feel free to “Add A Resource” here.

Want to help support the SPD Foundation as a community?  You can donate to help fund research and further therapeutic standards for the 1 in 20 children affected by Sensory Processing Disorder through a Community Effort to Support the SPD Foundation through GivingFirst.org.

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About the Author:

Gina St. Aubin
Gina St. Aubin is a former Victim’s Advocate who now advocates for those with intellectual and physical challenges. Her eldest son is diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy, Autism, Sensory Processing Disorder, Electrical Status Epilepticus during Sleep / Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (a rare epileptic disorder causing verbal aphasia) and Developmental Delays. In June, 2012, her son also underwent a successful hemispherectomy. Gina is the editor, author and owner of Special Happens, serves as a member of the Board of Directors for the SPD Foundation, and resides in Colorado where she is a mother of 3, wife, blogger, writer and special needs advocate.


  1. Ashley Parks December 21, 2012 at 7:35 pm - Reply

    Very informative! I had a student a few years ago with SPD and he was very misunderstood. I wish everyone understood this about individuals with SPD. 🙂

    • Editor February 25, 2013 at 10:45 pm - Reply

      Thank you Ashley. It is our hope at the SPD Foundation that we can get that awareness out there!

  2. Jan December 22, 2012 at 5:34 am - Reply

    I just read an article on another blog about SPD and wrote about what happened to me as a kid. I think I had and may still have SPD. I will need to look into it further for myself. Thanks for the article 🙂

    • Editor February 25, 2013 at 10:45 pm - Reply

      Great Jan. I hope you can find some good help.

  3. Jennifer Johansen December 23, 2012 at 1:32 am - Reply

    My kids don’t have these particular issues, but it’s so important to educate ourselves on what others are going through. Thank you for sharing this information! I didn’t know about that 8th sense!

    • Editor February 25, 2013 at 10:47 pm - Reply

      Thanks Jennifer.

      Awareness about SPD is so important. Knowing that the kiddo in the grocery line in front of you might be having a difficult time from a number of things within the store will help give his parents support during a meltdown… Support comes just by knowing that others would not be judgmental, but rather aware.

  4. Natasha Brodsky December 28, 2012 at 8:46 am - Reply

    Thanks for this post. I had no idea about this disorder.

    • Editor February 25, 2013 at 10:48 pm - Reply

      Thank you for reading Natasha.

  5. Wendy O. January 3, 2013 at 8:46 am - Reply

    While we aren’t diagnosed with SPD, my daughter and I both have some tendencies (specifically #3, 4 & 5). Right now we’re working with therapists from our local Birth to Three program because my 2 year old has texture issues and still won’t eat solid food (I was the same way as a baby and didn’t eat solids until I was 3). We’ve made huge strides, but I can’t wait to be able to stop buying baby food! 🙂

    • Editor February 25, 2013 at 10:49 pm - Reply


      I’m so glad that you have been able to reach out and get help for your 2 year old. I’m sure much of what you learn will help you and your daughter with your presentations of SPD.

  6. jennifer speed January 3, 2013 at 8:35 pm - Reply

    I had no idea there was this kind of disorder but I’m glad that you have explained what it us and how to determine if an individual has this disorder.

  7. Cunha November 5, 2013 at 10:12 pm - Reply

    I found out about SPD a little over one year ago, just before my son started preschool. I was extremely frustrated because I observed many of the signs mentioned above and his pediatrician and teachers simply didn’t do anything to help him. I went to the library and did extensive research using keywords of the behaviors he displayed daily. That’s when I came across the book “The Out-of-Sync Child”. I can only tell you that I was relieved beyond words when all my concerns were finally being validated. My son is in Kindergarten now and he’s undergoing a full evaluation. Even before the process has ended he was already been transfered to an inclusion classroom and is getting a lot of the support that he needs. I wish teachers and pediatricians were more knowledgeble about SPD to better help children with this disorder. It was so hard for me as a parent to see my son suffer and so much of that could’ve been avoided if only my concerns were taken seriously by the health care and education professionals. I’m glad to see more people talking about it.

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